Open Letter 1 to citizens–The Status of Peace Implementation: SSCSF

1) Introduction

Dear fellow citizens,

The South Sudan Civil Society Forum (SSCSF) writes to you following the eve of the first anniversary of the Transitional Period of the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS).

“This letter aims to update you on what is happening with the implementation of the 2018 Peace Agreement.”

SSCSF, with a nation-wide membership of over 200 diverse and independent civil society organizations and individual activists, has represented you in the peace process right from the High Level Revitalization Forum (HLRF) and now in the implementation mechanisms of the R-ARCSS.

The Forum held numerous consultations throughout the country, engaged in radio talk shows, social media and channelled your voices to various institutions of the agreement. It is therefore obligatory for SSCSF to report to you the status of implementation of the R-ARCSS, one year into the Transitional Period and about 29 months since the signing of the Agreement.

The purpose of this letter is to inform you about prospects for peace in our country through the implementation of the 2018 Agreement by the Revitalized Transitional Government of National Unity (RTGoNU) and its constituent parties. This letter also intends to draw your attention to active citizenry in pursuit of lasting peace in the country.

  1. Missed Opportunities during the Transitional Period

Fellow Citizens, the R-ARCSS is a framework for peace in South Sudan. It was agreed upon by parties to the conflict and endorsed by stakeholders including faith-based leaders, civil society, academia, women, youth, business community and eminent persons.

If implemented on time, the Agreement would have established and strengthened the government to deliver on its core mandate of protecting us, our property and our country. Public institutions at all levels of government would have been reformed and strengthened to deliver social services to South Sudanese. It would have also allowed internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees to return home voluntarily, in safe and dignified manner.

Through transitional justice processes in the Agreement, families and individuals offended and aggrieved during the conflict would have gotten an opportunity to seek justice. We would have also engaged in a process of truth, reconciliation and healing to overcome the pains of the past and unite across our diversities to build a peaceful, just and prosperous South Sudan.

True implementation of the peace agreement would have enabled us to write a new constitution and prepare for democratic elections to elect leaders of our choice at all levels of government in our country.

  1. Status of implementation of the R-ARCSS

Fellow citizens, we regret to inform you that progress made in the implementation of the peace agreement, over the last one year of the Transitional Period, has been very limited and mainly elitebased and Juba-centric. We are disheartened at the extent to which the Agreement has failed to offer you anything tangible so far, whether peace or peace dividends.

The parties formed the executive of the national government, appointed state governors, and allocated responsibilities (positions) among themselves for state and local government institutions. The national executive of RTGoNU was structured into five ministerial thematic clusters, each headed by a Vice President. Despite the disruptions related to COVID-19 pandemic, these institutions including the Council of Ministers have been operational.

After one year of delays, the parties to the Agreement have started reconstituting state governments. By the time of writing this letter, appointments were made for officials in the executive arm of Central Equatoria, Warrap, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, Unity, Western Bahr el Ghazal Jonglei and Western Equatoria state governments.

A National Constitutional Amendment Committee (NCAC) reviewed several laws and drafted them into bills for enactment. These legislative bills were submitted to the Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs for presentation to the Council of Ministers and subsequently to the parliament for enactment, as part of numerous reforms envisaged in the R-ARCSS.

Fellow Citizens, the remaining provisions of the Agreement which are crucial to our lives have not been implemented over the last one year of the Transitional Period.

The 2018 Agreement provided for restoration of permanent and sustainable peace, security and stability in our country envisaged through training, graduation and deployment of national unified forces to take charge of security. Sadly, there is little progress to report on this front.

During our visits to the unified training centers, we confirmed that the training was supposed to last for sixty day. However, the trainees have been in the training centers for over fourteen months and there is no clarity on when they would be graduated and deployed.

A comprehensive national plan to facilitate and support repatriation, rehabilitation and resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs) and returnees in a voluntary and dignified manner has not been developed. Lack of plans by the government, looming insecurity and poor services continue to discourage IDPS and refugees from returning home.

Reconciliation and healing of our society, especially through transitional justice mechanisms of the Agreement did not move an inch in the whole first year of the Transitional Period.

We should have been engaging in writing a permanent constitution for our country to address unsettled matters of governance, wealth sharing and elections. This too has not formally commenced.

Radical reforms and transformation in public financial management systems to promote transparency and accountability in the utilization of our national resources have not been accomplished. Commitments in the Agreement for much needed reforms, restructuring and transformation in the civil service, security sector, judicial and electoral systems have not been meaningfully realized.

The commitment to devolve powers and resources to state and local government levels, closer to us throughout the country, still remains only on paper.

The Agreement provides for representation of women by at least 35% in constitutional posts. Unfortunately, out of 264 officials so far appointed in governments of seven states, only 33 (12.5%) are women. At the national level, this 35% was not also met and the former Incumbent Transitional Government of National Unity (ITGoNU), dominated by Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) is the main party that consistently undermined this commitment of the Agreement.

  1. Effects of slow implementation
    Fellow Citizens, in the slow and selective implementation of the agreement, the one year-old RTGoNU has done very little to develop sufficient administrative, institutional, systemic and security capacities to effectively govern the country and address the multiple challenges facing South Sudanese.

Security situation

The country is beginning to lose the gains made in implementation of the Transitional Security Arrangements (TSAs). Reports by the monitoring mechanisms of the Agreement – the Reconstituted Joint Monitoring and Evaluation (RJMEC) and the Ceasefire and Transitional Security Arrangements, Monitoring and Verification Mechanism (CTSAMVM) indicate that forces assembled in both cantonment sites and training centers have been deserting those facilities due to unbearable living conditions and wilful neglect by the parties to the agreement.

Within the last one year of the Transitional Period, the parties have been accepting and even promoting on the national television, the defections of forces who are supposed to be unified within the framework of the Agreement. The defections amounts to recruitment, hence violating commitment of the parties in Article 2.1.8 of the Agreement, to cease recruitment of forces. Acceptance and promotion of defectors on the national television also amounts to violation of commitment under Article to refrain from offensive, provocative or retaliatory actions such as dissemination of hostile propaganda, recruitment, mobilization, redeployment and movement of forces.

In Moroto unified training center, these defections resulted in serious fighting among forces affiliated to the SPLM/A-IO and defectors allied to ITGoNU, especially in September and November of 2020, undermining Agreement commitments to cessation of hostilities. The fighting also resulted in loss of lives of our fellow citizens, some of whom were your close relatives.

At the community levels, inability of the RTGoNU to provide adequate administrative controls and security to civilians gave way for numerous armed violence that resulted in destruction of lives, property and villages; abduction of women and children, raping of women and girls; displacements of populations and disruption of means of livelihoods of our populations. In our interactions with many of our fellow citizens, especially in the affected areas around the country, they reported living in fear and not having seen the “Juba-based” Agreement helping to improve their conditions.

Fellow Citizens, instead of using the provisions contained in the agreement to address major security issues affecting the country, RTGoNU relies on ad-hoc interventions of holding political, elite-level and Juba-based dialogues. While doing so, conflicting groups in the communities and villages continue with the menace. Moreover, the dialogues are concluded only at closing ceremonies and their outcomes are never seriously implemented.

Meanwhile, the United Nations has found evidence that senior army and elite politicians are providing weapons to communities . The country is yet to witness any action by the RTGoNU to hold to account individuals or groups responsible for the flow of combat grade weapons to civilians involved in killings, cattle theft, abductions of women and children and destruction of villages.

While the forces under unification desert cantonment and training centers, civilians roam the villages, so armed and powerful that local government authorities and available government security cannot manage to contain them. In some parts of the country, for example Tonj East County of Warrap State, selective and poorly planned disarmament of civilians resulted in more violence and loss of lives; leaving heavily armed civilians in control of villages.

We are repeatedly told by the parties that our country has no resources to fund the implementation of the agreement, especially the security arrangements. However, we see hotels in Juba demanding millions of dollars of our national resources in accommodation bills from the RTGoNU. We equally witness heavy spending of our national resources on very expensive luxurious vehicles. With priorities, these resources would have helped in the implementation of many aspects of the Agreement.

Economy situation

Fellow Citizens, we measure progress in the R-ARCSS not by elite- and Juba-based activities but by the level of improvements the Agreement brings to your living conditions in your respective locations. Generally, the economic situation has continued to worsen since the signing of the Agreement and particularly over the last one year of the Transitional Period.

By the time Agreement was signed in September 2018, the exchange rate of South Sudanese Pounds (SSP) against the United States dollar was about $1 to 200SSP in the parallel market, today $1 equals to 340SSP. And it has further plunged to $1 equals 650SSP, raising market prices on goods and services far above the reach of ordinary citizens who are not usually paid salaries for months.

These difficult economic conditions cause some institutions of the RTGoNU to improvise means to extort money from the already struggling citizens. For example, many illegal roadblocks are set up along major roads in the country to illegally extort money from travellers and businesses. In Juba city, driving licences and logbooks are routinely confiscated from drivers, especially female drivers and boda-boda riders and they are charged to pay thousands of pounds, in most cases without receipts. This happens in complete disregard for the economic situation citizens face.

Humanitarian situation

Current statistics on humanitarian situation indicates that over 8 million of our citizens, including 4.3 million children are in need of multi-sectoral humanitarian assistance; 4 million remain displaced including 1.6 million IDPs and 2 million refugees in the region . The statistics further reveal that 1.3 million children are at risk of acute malnutrition, 3.3 million people lack essential health care services, 5.2 million people lack access to safe clean drinking water and 3.1 million children can miss basic education in this year alone. This statistics puts our humanitarian crisis among the worst in the world. Evidently, the Agreement is not being implemented to robustly address these multiple humanitarian crisis in the country.

Political situation

Fellow Citizens, there is no clear political agenda and direction for our country. The R-ARCSS as a political program, is not being responsibly implemented. A complimentary solution was sought through the South Sudan National Dialogue, from December 2016 to November 2020. Substantial amounts of resources were invested from national and foreign sources and many of you participated in this National Dialogue at different levels – grassroots consultations, regional conferences and national conference. This too is now being abandoned with no commitments to implement its outcomes. Further still, the vision of the struggle for the liberation and independence of our country “…for justice, freedom, equality, human dignity and political and economic emancipation ” should have been the foundation of our country’s governance. But again, our leaders have abandoned that vision too.

On the political land scape, there is clearly no difference between parties that have been in government and those supposedly fighting for fundamental reforms in our country. We engage with all the parties directly and in the oversight and implementation mechanisms of the agreement and we can report to you with certainty that the calls for reforms no longer feature prominently anywhere in the discussions of the leaders of our country.

As South Sudan remains politically weak, it becomes increasingly vulnerable to aggressive encroachment on our sovereign territories by some neighbouring countries. This is another potential source of future crisis in the country.

  1. Our Conclusions

Fellow Citizens, from our analysis of the situation, we have reached a conclusion on the following important issues:

(1) Economic, security, political and humanitarian situations in our country continue to worsen, imposing unbearable suffering on the population over the past one year of the Transitional Period. There is no predictable indication showing that the situation will change for the better any time soon, under current conditions of the peace implementation.

(2) The bloodshed and the suffering of the people as a result of the deteriorating security, economic and humanitarian situations in the country are likely to worsen unless the government takes urgent and responsible measures as outlined in the Agreement and also in the Resolutions of the National Dialogue, to restore sustainable peace, security and stability in the country.

(3) The people of South Sudan have used the agreement, the National Dialogue and other peaceful means at their disposal to repeatedly remind the parties and the government to improve the situation in our country, but nothing significant has changed. The region and the international community who sympathize with our conditions have equally called on the parties to implement the agreement, but the parties remain selective, slow and inconsistent in implementing the peace agreement.

(4) Our participation in the agreement as your representative voice only makes sense as long as the implementation of the agreement is carried out in a manner that improves the security, economic, humanitarian and human rights situations for you; and ultimately unite our country and put an end to the bloodshed. We contend that we cannot be an endorsement to the continuous extension of your suffering, the destruction and mismanagement of our national resources through willful inconsistencies in the implementation of the peace agreement. To that end Fellow Citizens, we will reconsider our participation in the oversight and implementation mechanisms of the Agreement.

(5) Given this situation in the country, we invite you, Fellow Citizens, to do your part and play an active citizenry role towards ending the persistent suffering and continuous bloodshed in our country. Specifically, we call on you to:

5.1 Demand of the government and its constituent parties, full implementation of the Agreement and measures that would restore stability in your respective localities.

5.2 Take charge of peacebuilding in your respective communities including holding dialogues to resolve any disputes and normalize relations.

5.3 Identify, disown, name and shame perpetrators of violence in the community and use appropriate mechanisms at the community, state or national levels to stop them perpetuating further violence and destabilization.

Joint statement from religious group, women’s coalition, and rights activists

South Sudan's President Salva Kiir Mayardit and his Deputy Dr. Riek Machar Teny | Photo: File

‘For they speak not peace: but they devise deceitful matters against them that are quiet in the land’. (Psalms 35:20)

Joint Press Statement

Ahead of the eve of the first anniversary of the Transitional Period of the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS); we, the South Sudan Council of Churches (SSCC), the South Sudan Civil Society Forum (SSCSF) and the South Sudan Women’s Coalition for Peace (SSWCP) have come together to jointly amplify the call of the citizens of South Sudan for restoration of peace, security and stability and an end to all bloodshed in our country.

This is not the first time we have called on the same leaders to fulfill their responsibility to our country and the citizens of this nation. Unfortunately, these calls have not yielded any meaningful change to the ongoing crisis in the country and the living conditions of the common citizens.

While we acknowledge reduction of military confrontations among forces of parties to the peace agreement, positive steps to hold few armed forces accountable for crimes against civilians and the reconstitution of the executive of the new unity government as well as appointment of all ten state governors, we remain deeply concerned that the overall situation has not convincingly improved.

The country has continued to witness; devastating intercommunal violence, displacement of civilians, sexual and gender based violence, unnecessary roadblocks for extorting money and inflicting pain on travellers and humanitarian workers alongside an economy that falters with soaring inflation rates. Reports from aid agencies persistently indicate increase in the number of people in need of humanitarian assistance, showing that the peace agreement has not helped to significantly scale down the humanitarian crisis in the country.

Moreover, most parties remain recalcitrant to implementation of the 35% affirmative action quota. With this growing unbearable situation of human suffering, we are prompted to echo the people’s call for an end to violent conflicts and insecurity, displacement of civilians and insensitive creation of more orphans and widows. It is becoming more apparent to us each passing day that this is the most viable option to stability.

We now seize this moment to jointly exhort all our representatives; religious leaders, women, youth and civil society leaders across the country to unite, raise their voices and call for what the people desperately need – peace, security and stability to end bloodshed and human suffering in South Sudan.

We find ourselves at a loss for what to say or do when it is evident that the scale of the economic, security and humanitarian crisis have not moved the leaders to save this country from further disintegration and human suffering.

In the face of these unprecedented challenges our country and the people are going through, we commit on their behalf to intensify these calls until all leaders listen and deliver peace, justice, liberty and prosperity for all citizens of our country.

Oh God, Bless South Sudan!

Whistleblowers disclose wide-spread corruption in Nilpet

Press Statement | On the rampant corruption in Nilpet under the leadership of Bol Ring Muorwel

Managing Director Eng. Bol Ring Muorwel | Photo: File

The leadership of South Sudan Anti-Corruption Forum would like to update the general public and the high leadership of the country, on the ongoing malpractices that are being practiced by the incumbent Managing Director Eng. Bol Ring Muorwel and his relatives.

The SSACF’s leadership is much concerned about the broad daylight looting of the Nilpet’s resources by Bol Ring and his relatives. Eng. Bol Ring unknowingly turned the national company into a clan entity and the public need to take this into consideration.

The top leadership of the country should intervene quickly and rescue the national company from collapsing by firing the corrupt managing director Eng. Bol Ring.
The leadership of South Sudan Anti-Corruption Forum (SSACF) made strong research on Nilpet Company surroundings and finally comfiled the following points that you need to intervene so that you liberate the innocent South Sudanese’s resources from being eaten by this man you appointed but turns into Hyena in a broad daylight looting Nilpet resources and hired people to defend him on social media (Deng Emmillo Mou) and many others.

1- The leadership of South Sudan Anti-Corruption Forum examined and found that the monthly salary designated for Managing Directors depending who is present as a Managing Director had been an amount of 1300$ with weekly allowance of 1000$. However a designated amount that an Eng. Bol Ring Muorwel refused to abide by but he instead changed his Managing Director’s monthly salary from 1300$ to 50,000$ with a weekly allowance of 70,000$. Which is a clear corruption on the broad daylight. He deserves to be relieved immediately.

2- The salary amount of a cashier in the National Oil Company all these years had been 800$ and an allowance of 300$, but when Eng. Bol Ring Muorwel entered as a Managing Director, he first of all relieved the innocent cashier (Chiek Reech) with his duties and appointed his brother’s son Ring Charles Mayen and changed the cashier’s salary from 800$ to 20,000$ with weekly allowance of 50,000$. Corruption and nepotism in action.

3- He currently bought an unbelievable luxurious building in Sudan Khartoum and he is building or constructing another wonderful tower in Uganda Kampala currently too through brother’s son Ring Charles Mayen who is in charge of all his uncle’s looted country’s resources. And more are yet to happen.

4- The Managing Director Eng. Bol Ring Muorwel rented the house here in juba for 5years with an amount of 3,000,000$. He did this in his arrival to the National Oil Company.

5- He bought 4 cars on his arrival to the company as his own, 1 prado, 2 V8 and 1 Land cruiser.

6- He diverted the company’s employees year bonus Clothes allowance into his private account, he also moves to divert the amount dedicated for Christmas occasion and other important feasts into his account also.

7- He (Managing Director) is planning to buy a cargo plane for the company at an amount of 45,000,000$ which is not an amount of buying when the citizens are hungry, civil servants have no salaries and when government is always on loan from other countries, waging a heavy debt that would have serious implications on the next generations.

With all these evidences, an Eng. Bol Ring Muorwel deserves immediate dismissal and taken for investigation. In this time of the implementation of the Revatlized Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan, South Sudanese are keenly checking on you the leaders of the Country to see who doesn’t hear the voices of people across the country, imagine that Bol got appointed recently into this sensitive Country’s position but in less than 6 months, he did all the listed above which is a clear disgraced to the high leadership of the country

Thank you!

Deng Tong Ariath,

President, South Sudan Anti-Corruption Forum, Juba, South Sudan

Open letter to President Kiir: Request for removal of NILEPET M. Director Eng. Bol Muorwel

Request for the immediate removal of NILEPET Managing Director Eng. Bol Ring Muorwel

President Salva Kiir presides over the oath-taking ceremony of NILEPET’s Board of Directors on October 23, 2020 |Photo: PPU

The Leadership of South Sudan Anti Corruption Forum ( SSACF) wishes to appreciate you for implementing the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R- ARCISS). South Sudan Anti Corruption Forum is congratulating your entire leaders on the successful implementation of the peace agreement.

As a newly established public organization, SSACF has decided to write to you this open letter requesting for the relieve of the corrupt managing director of the national oil company ( Nilepet). The leadership of South Sudan Anti Corruption Forum decided to write this open letter in response to the public cries against the rampant corrupt practices which Eng.Bol Ring and his relatives are undertaking in the national oil company.

Your Excellency, South Sudan Anti Corruption Forum would like to bring to your attention the malpractices that are taking place in Nile Petroleum Corporation under the leadership of Eng. Ring Muorwel. He (Bol Ring Miurwel) is an hyena in sheep’s clothing. Our leadership is fully aware of Bol’s plan to loot the Nile Petroleum Corporation Ltd under the cover of reform. We think that it is our responsibility to enlighten you on the massive looting of public resources by the managing director of Nilepet.


Nilepet Petroleum Corporation Ltd is a national oil company that has a well defined human resource policies entrusted with the recruitment of staffs. The Human Resource Department in Nilepet was functional at the time of the previous Managing Directors. Unfortunately, the roles and duties of human resource department were recently hijacked by the incumbent Nilepet MD Bol Ring through his Nephew Ring Charles Mayen. Upon taking over the roles of Managing Director, Bol Ring began implementing his vision of employing all the members of his Padhieu Clan as well as In laws.

In less than twoths in office, he recruited more than 70 members of his clan ( Padhieu) together with in-laws. To elaborate on this point. Bol Ring brought in more than 30 relatives from the Village (Wunrock) and employed them in high grades probably from grade sixteen to eighteen. Many of his relatives whom he employed are unqualified. After giving them contracts, he assigned all of them in key and luxurious departments in Nilepet. The leadership of South Sudan Anti Corruption Forum compiled all the seventy names of Padhieu Clan members who were recruited into Nilepet by Bol Ring.

In addition, Bol Ring has sidelined and relieved most of the competent and educated staff who are against his corrupt policies. The clear example is the relieve of Cde. Ring Deng Ajing from the position of Petrol Station Manager. He (Ring Deng Ajing) is a master degree holder in art and diplomatic relations, from University of Juba. He is a man who doesn’t tolerate nonsenses and corruption. The leadership of South Sudan Anti Corruption Forum has really appreciated Ring Deng Ajing for standing firm against corruption.

Some of Padhieu Clan’s members and their In-law members that Eng. Bol Ring Muowel Recruited into Nilpet Company.

  1. Ring Charles Mayen, Cashier and nephew to Bol Ring
  2. Achai Riak, Grade 17 and niece to Bol Ring Muorwel
  3. Madut Agoth, Grade 17, in-law to Bol Ring and husband to Achai Riak ( see 2)
  4. Deng Ring, Grade 17, assigned to Dar Petroleum and nephew to Bol Ring Muorwel.
  5. Luar Mawith, Grade 17, nephew to Bol Ring.
  6. Atong Cyirilo Thou, Grade 16 and niece to Bol Ring
  7. Ngong Ring, Grade 18 and nephew to Bol Ring.
  8. Ring Deng, Grade 15 and nephew to Bol Ring
  9. Magai Noi, Grade 14, in-law and husband to the daughter of spiritual leader ( recommended by his father in-law)
  10. Ring Bol, Grade 15 and, nephew to Bol Ring
  11. Ring Malou, grade 16 and nephew to Bol Ring
  12. Malou Bol, nephew to Bol Ring
  13. Peter Deng Papdit, inlaw to Ring Charles Mayen and Bol Ring
  14. Maguor Ajingdit, Grade 17, Senior Two leaver, close relative to Bol Ring and son to the spiritual leader ( recommended by his father)
    We have compiled all the names and we shall leak more names to the public next week.

2—Financial Corruption

The first step which Bol Ring took towards financial corruption is the promotion of his nephew Ring Charles from grade 12 to Grade 17 and place him in charge of accounts. After assigning his nephew in charge of Accounts, Bol Ring illegally transferred the account office from the headquarters to his house.

To prove this, Bol Ring usually carries more than five millions dollars in his car. Bol Ring has approved 50,000 dollars as a weekly allowances to his nephew Ring Charles Mayens and this was first reported by many media houses. Bol Ring has been approving hundreds thousands of dollars to the members of Padhieu Clan. He recently approved two millions dollars for the treatment of the wife of his nephew Ring Charles Mayen in Khartoum.

3—Stoppage of the construction of Nilepet’s Headquarters premises.

The construction of Nilepet’s Headquarters was an initiative from the former managing director Dr. Chol Deng. The construction of the proposed headquarters of Nile Petroleum Corporation Ltd would have been completed by last year if Dr. Chol is in the leadership. However, the construction stopped after the relieve of Dr. Chol Deng. The primary reason for the stoppage of the construction of Nilepet’s head office is that the incumbent Managing Director Bol Ring diverted the construction funds to his pocket.

The leadership of South Sudan Anti Corruption Forum has come to conclusion that the above charges against Bol Ring are all facts and may lead to the collapse of the national oil company if he is not removed.

Therefore, The leadership of SSACF is requesting you to relive him, place him under investigation and appoint any competent South Sudanese as a managing director of Nile Petroleum Corporation Ltd. Bol Ring has turned the national oil company from Nile Petroleum Corporation Company Limited ( Nilepet) into Padhieu Corporation Company Limited ( PadhieuPet). It is unlawful to turn the public company into the family enterprise.


Tong Deng Ariath —President, South Sudan Anti- Corruption Forum.
1) Benjamin Wani Taban, Central Equatoria State
2) Adhar Malek Deng —Chairman, SSACF |
Warrap State
3) Joseph Uchu Abounga—Chairman of SSACF, Western Bhar El State
4) Deng Dak Gatluak — Chairman of SSACF, Unity State.
5) Martin Odwar Ochalla—Chairman of SSACF, Eastern Equatoria State
6) Sebit Okiech Othow, SSACF | Upper Nile State
7) Maria Hassan Rejap — SSACF Chairlady, Western Equatoria State
8) James Matueng Marial — Chairman, SSACF, Lakes State
9) Ajith Ajith WoSl—Chairperson, SSACF | Northern Bhar El Gazal State
10) Johnson Chuol Deng —Chairperson, SSACF | Jonglei State
11) Daniel Kongi Kulang—Chairman, SSACF | GPAA
12) Wilson Deng Thor —Chairman, SSACF | Ruweng Administrative Area.
13) Kuol Deng Nyol—Chairman, SSACF | Abyei Administrative Area

Mabior finally sheds light on SPLM-IO’s hidden internal affairs

Response to Matthew Debuol – Personal Assistant to the Minister of Defense of the R-TGONU)

Opinion |By Mabior Garang de Mabior 

Dec 13, 2020 (Thessherald)–On the 12th of December I received a missed call, followed by a message from Matthew Debuol, who goes by the username Troika on Telegram. He urged me to contact him directly, which I did later on the same day. I was taken aback since I have never received a call from this Comrade. To my surprise, he was calling me regarding the now infamous Facebook post by Comrade Kalany Mamuon in which he criticised the Hon. Minister of Defense, Mama Angelina.

He went on to – in a passive aggressive manner – intimidate me by giving me a lecture on party regulations and procedures. He wanted me to take disciplinary action against Comrade Kalany, whom he had previously threatened and failed. I wondered with which authority he was calling me and giving me directives.

In response, I declined to take any official action against Comrade Kalany since his was a personal opinion expressed on social media and not an official SPLM/SPLA (IO) position. It is the right of any citizen to criticise and hold accountable any constitutional post holder. While what Comrade Kalany said may have been insensitive, it was accurate.

It is for the same reason we criticise the President, that we can criticise any Minister; it comes with the territory, as it were. It is for this reason that I resigned as the Deputy Minister of Interior. In the absence of security arrangements, it was a set up for failure. However, I did agree to talk to Comrade Kalany and told him he could have found a better way of expressing the same view.

After several unsuccessful attempts to use me to intimidate Comrade Kalany, Comrade Matthew Debuol’s true colours came out suddenly in a sectarian rant. It started with an innocent question, asking how I propose we change the regime, which I told him was a question to be answered by the leadership, rendered irrelevant by the Luak Ltd. He then went on to tell me, ‘with all due respect’, Nuer children should not die for my regime change agenda. That I should go and bring children from Bor to die for regime change. At this point, I knew the Conversation was over.

I have received several messages from some party members counselling me not to dignify such myopic views with a response. I agree with these Comrades in principle. However, I felt it was necessary to write an “Opinion” on this issue because it is one of the propaganda talking points of a sectarian-cultural interest group in Juba who have hijacked the leadership of the peoples’ movement in the name of “giving peace a chance”.

Compatriots, this is mischief!

I am less concerned about the damage these words may do to my ego. I do not even believe they are the words of Comrade Debuol, I believe he picked them up from the senior partners in what I call the Luak Ltd. The enemy within is trying to use sectarian sentiments as a smokescreen to conceal their surrender to the status quo. They are suffering from struggle fatigue. The dishonourable surrender of the NPTC regime has nothing to do with saving the lives of Nuer children, it is magendo – corruption in the South Sudanese vernacular.

If these people cared about Nuer children, why have they forgotten about those in the Protection of Civilians Camps (PoC) and those in the refugee camps? The very same army he (Matthew Debuol) claims he wants to save by going to Juba, is the very same one which has been abandoned in the bush and are languishing in the cantonment centers. They are now under attack by an army led by a senior member of their party also in charge of security in the party.

In 2014, many South Sudanese from all walks of life joined the struggle for fundamental change in our country after the Juba massacre. Our indignation at this tragic chapter in our history was not because Nuers per se were killed, but because those who died where our fellow citizens.

In conclusion, members of the SPLM/SPLA (IO) and our civil population in general, should understand the difference between Peace and an Agreement. The current Agreement in Juba will never bring peace, which is our ultimate objective. Not necessarily the implementation of the Agreement. There is a difference between giving an Agreement a chance and giving Peace a chance. We have seen the results of giving this Agreement a chance, it has ended in war in Moroto. Let us now give real peace a chance by being honest with ourselves; there is no Agreement and we the politicians have surrendered.

Perhaps we may find peace out of this noble admission and negotiate a good surrender which may have a better chance at ending in peace.

Mabior: Open Letter to SPLM/SPLA (IO) Members

Mabior Garang de Mabior |Photo |Courtesy

Dear Comrades in Struggle

Nov. 7, 2020 (Thessherald)–In reference to the above subject, I am writing to members to set the record straight surrounding the current state of confusion in the leadership of your Movement. This confusion is related to the recent rumour and forged letter alleging I had resigned. The letter in question was fabricated by those who want to push me out as they have done to many Comrades.

This letter was easily verifiable by members as a forgery as it is nowhere to be found on my website, the medium through which my publications are released to the public. I later released two communications between the Chairman, Dr. Riek Machar and myself. In these two memos, I communicated my frustration at the hijacking of the Movement and made my intention to resign as the Spokesperson clear to the leadership. It was these memos which some Comrades took and decided to use in a propaganda campaign to push me out. We fondly call these Comrades the NPTC regime. We all know who they are and they know themselves.

There was already a struggle being waged for fundamental change in our country by the time war broke out in December 2013. As soon as our country gained independence, progressive citizens started to voice their concerns, claiming that the historic SPLM had failed to deliver the promise of the liberation struggle. We lost several Comrades in this struggle, including the infamous case of our brother, Isaiah Abraham, murdered in cold blood by unknown gunmen in 2013.

All these politicians who today find themselves on various sides of the political divide, hijacked this struggle from these progressive citizens after they were all sacked in 2013. In so doing, they have squandered an opportunity to birth a bona fide Republic and have plunged the country into an abyss.

These opposition groups were not serious about the struggle for radical reforms in our country; instead, they piggybacked their vested interests on the peoples’ struggle. As such, they failed to present a unified opposition which could bring pressure to bear on the regime, as an incentive to make them implement the Agreement.

In the history of struggle, no divided opposition has never defeated an incumbent. These so-called opposition groups have used the Agreement to get back positions they lost in 2013. They abandoned the reform agenda and are today helping to maintain the intolerable status quo they claimed they wanted to change.

This is mischief!
The decision to go to Juba was neither discussed by the leadership, nor was it put to a vote – it was the decision of the Chairman and a small group which has emerged over the years. It was not only the decision to go to Juba which was made without consultation; this is true about most decisions. Members have always wondered why I never attended the meetings that our Movement held in Pagak. It was because decisions were literally made by a “kitchen cabinet”. There are Comrades who slept in the Chairman’s kitchen in Pagak to be admitted into this exclusive club. In most meetings, the resolutions are presented as the agenda and Comrades are made to feel like they have participated, but this is not so.

Fellow members,
This interest group has now openly hijacked the movement, delivering our Chairman and Commander in Chief to an open prison in Juba. In addition, they are helping the regime portray an image to the public that the Agreement is being implemented. There are several legal bodies of the movement which briefed the Chairman and Commander in Chief that the move to Juba was premature. In the end, it was the advice of the interest group – the NPTC regime – which prevailed and the entire leadership was ordered to go to Juba without consultation.

The Committees for security and the military leadership were denied any meeting with their Commander in Chief, who assured them he would return in three days. The Chairman and Commander in Chief, Dr. Riek Machar, has now been in Juba for nine months under serious restrictions despite being the First Vice President (FVP).

He cannot communicate with the real political leadership or the military leadership, he cannot hold rallies, speak to the media or even go to church. This can hardly be called peace. This clique which has hijacked the SPLM/SPLA (IO) still claim “the peace is going on well”, when we all know there is no peace.

The NPTC regime has created an atmosphere of intimidation and fear, labelling anyone who points out the lack of implementation of the peace Agreement and the movement’s loss of vision and direction, as anti-peace. They have rendered the National Committee for Information useless.

We have countered this mischief through opinion pieces to inform the public in an unofficial manner. It is obvious that we have opposing definitions of peace. To the revolutionary intellectual, peace means that a boy from Yirol can sell his meat in Yambio and a girl from Yambio can sell her pineapples in Yirol. That is our definition of peace, not the distribution of positions between eminent persons.

The SPLM/SPLA (IO) has so far been the best political movement in the country with the most potential to bring fundamental change in our country. We joined the Movement in April 2014 to contribute our faculties to the objective of delivering the promise of the liberation struggle to our peoples. It is unfortunate that today, the political movement has lost vision and direction. Therefore, it is important for us to look inwards so that we can make revolutionary corrections.

We must start the radical reforms we propose for our peoples within the Movement first. Otherwise, we have no business calling for reforms in the country. The Political Bureau (PB) and the National Liberation Council (NLC) are not the highest bodies in the SPLM/SPLA (IO), it is the members through the National Convention. I call on the members of our movement to rescue her by calling for an extraordinary convention to discuss the crisis in the leadership. If the objectives of our struggle have changed, it should be made clear and those who wish to take a different direction can decide in such a meeting.

Yours in the struggle,
Cpt. Mabior Garang
Mobile Office

Rescue the bleeding Sudanese nations

Opinion | Rev Karlo Kolong Okoy

South Sudanese celebrating during the independence day of South Sudan | Photo: Thessherald

South Sudanese celebrating during the independence day of South Sudan | Photo: Thessherald

September 6, 2020 (Thessherald)-Dear international leaders and heads of nations known as UN leaders, I am crying on behalf of the bleeding Sudanese nations, we are all descendants of Adam and Eve made in the image of the same God, read Genesis chapter 1:26-31. In February 2002 while in Nairobi, God gave me a vision known as “ we are not an island” this is what God told me to invite more than fifty five nations, diplomats and sympathetic organizations to come to Nairobi and stop the Sudanese Biblical cures mentioned in Isaiah chapter 18.titled “God will punish Sudan” God told me to give the two pages to Dr Riek Machar who is now confused daily because of mishandling the vision.

This vision has two main pages 1) invite foreign leaders to make peace for Sudanese people 2) to develop the war ravaged communities who did not have any national taste of their wealth within their own country since British gave the Sudanese independence in 1956, that is 64 years ago.

This vision achieved what they called “comprehensive Peace Agreement” or Nairobi peace of January 9/2005 now become a book titled “We are not an island in the Sudan” this book was published three times in Kampala Uganda in 2010, 2011, 2013 and I gave many copies to national leaders freely but they put under the beds.

Now I am not ashamed of the Gospel read Romans 1:16, our weapons are not like weapons of the world but weapons that have divine power to demolish every argument of man. Read 2 Corinthians 10:4-6. As a watchman of human lives, I cannot keep silent when my people are being killed and die before their duration of life on earth. Read Ezekiel 33 and 34.

Rescue the bleeding Sudanese nations
In 1956 Sudan got independence from Britain, in 1958 the first military coup led by General Ibrahim Abud, in 1964 civil uprising through much blood, in 1969 second military coup led by General Jafar Mohmad Numery, in 1971 the third military coup led by General Ashim Al ata for three weeks. In 1972 Addis Ababa Agreement between Khartoum government of Jafar Mohamde Numery and Anyanya one war led by Joseph Lagu mainly from Christian animist South Sudan that started from 1955 to 1972. In 1983 the second greatest civil war led by General John Gareng named this group (SPLA/ SPLM) all over the country again, this ended with what they called “Nairobi peace Agreement” of 2005. In 1985 the fourth military coup led by General Mohamad Sowar Adahab and transitional government combination of civil leadership led by Juzuli Dafala . In 1989 the fifth military coup led by Omar Hasen Bishri, In April 2019 the seventh military coup led by General Burahan with a combination of civil government that we now see with other transitional governments and transitional constitutions. Now South Sudan could not escape this Biblical punishment of Isaiah chapter 18 because she is part and parcel of the original Sudan.

In 2011 civil wars erupted again all the two nations including the major war of South Sudan 2013 to this day. Millions died of such non-Godly and careless leaderships. Can we God people allow the children or citizens to continue to be killed without alerting the international communities and God their maker? How will God judge us who know the truth? As a Christian any nation outside the Church and without the Bible will never have peace but we must try in the name of God the maker of all mankind.

There are two types of peace or reconciliation, the horizontal reconciliation and vertical reconciliation, the first is led by secular people the second is led by Christian leadership, without vertical reconciliation the horizontal reconciliation cannot last because it has no Biblical guidance. You cannot build a good house without true cement. Nations without the blood sacrifice of Jesus will never stop killing their own citizens. Isaiah 13 is about Iraq, Isaiah 17 is about Syria, Isaiah 18 is about Sudanese nations, Isaiah 19 is about Egypt, Isaiah 21 is about Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Christian leaders are trying to bring these people back to their true Biblical God that made them then peace can be achieved

This is my second appeal then to alert you nations and children of Adam to wake up and fulfill the prophecy of my book called “we are not an island in the Sudan” it has been in this book dated 2 December 2009 tilted “Dear CPA partners” page 99 and page 100, in the fourth edition published by X libirs UK in Bloomington Indiana USA November I quote “ Sudan has been fighting itself since British left the country 54 years ago will the world use dry grass to quench Sudanese fire like that of Iraq 2002? Paul Bermer may be needed in Sudan too to rescue the dying Sudanese” end of quote. This prophecy has taken ten years now and the Sudanese continued to kill their own Sudanese in both countries. After allied forces of NATO and some nations removed the brutal leader of Iraq 2003, they appointed Lewis Paul Bermer a US citizen as an interim leader for Iraq to pave the way for free and fair election within a year. Sudan has been bedeviled for the last 64 years of her independence with several coups’ interim governments interim constitution, sometimes they call it transitional governments and transitional constitution to confuse the world. We can see many nations are without permanent constitutions because they don’t know that permanent constitution means the Ten commandments or the Bible itself. What I see within the leaders in these two nations, there is no future peace for the Sudanese nations unless a UN neutral leader takes care for a period of five years with rapid development of all the marginalized communities, so the citizens can make inclusive constitutions and pave the way for free and fair elections.

In this period of 64 years’ war has been going on and millions have died from 2005 to this day of February 15/2020 more than four hundred thousand Sudanese in Western Sudan, Nuba mountains Southern Blue Nile died, about two hundred thousand escaped to Chad and three hundred thousand fled to South Sudan, two hundred thousand fled to Ethiopia and Egypt and in South Sudan more than three hundred thousand died, millions escaped to Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Dr Congo and to many other continents like Australia, Europe, Americas, Asia and countries like Libya risking lives within Mediterranean sea to Europe.

How can we church leaders keep silent when God appointed us to take care of his children worldwide? Jeremiah did not keep quiet when God told him to warn the bad national leaders, he was arrested many times, but God rescued him, the Israeli nation was exiled to Babylon despite the national opposition. Even the bad leaders become refugees too. This is happening today. Therefore, the book attached in this letter has explained Sudanese spiritual problems, political problems and gave solutions or the way forward. No doctor can give a patient a medicine before diagnosing the disease. Jesus spoke in Matthew 25:34-36 that those who help my children, when they were hungry you gave them food, when they were naked you gave them clothes, when they were sick you took them to the hospital, when they were illiterate you educated them, just to mention a few. I just paraphrased these. I thank the nations who have contributed such great needs and channel it through UN agencies and good Samaritans. Dear UN leadership! you become a true international parent to care for the orphans’ and the hunted citizens lynched before their Godly time.

Attached is the US and UN think tank group letter of November 29/2016 paper about the aim of solving the problem of South Sudan.

The author is a religious leader and Founder of evangelical free churches of the Sudanese nations, Author of We are not an island in the Sudan

Architect of Sudanese peace of 2005.
He can be reached via:


Simon Marot explains his first meeting with Kiir and what happened next

President Salva Kiir Mayardit meeting African Union Youth Envoy Ms Aya Chebbi and the AU youth advisory council and South Sudan youth leader Simon Marot TouloungInternet | Photo: Bwettephotohraphy

July 28, 2020 (Thessherald)–On the 25th of July 2019, when we met the President of the Republic of South Sudan, I had so many unanswered questions. Till this day, these questions make me crazy.

The first toughest encounter was at the office. After greeting him with one Hand (Something he never expected maybe from a Small Guy) which I believe was the right thing to do, Mr. President in his speech/intervention lamented that, South Sudanese youth have adopted bad cultural Practices from the Neighboring countries. Most of these young men and women grew up in East Africa and they come home with all these different cultures. They need to learn our cultures and adjust to it. I still do not know who messed up the “said culture” the young or the old. If he meant the Nilotic culture of respecting the elders, he would have not handed his hands to me. He would have placed it on my face/head as a sign of pouring blessing upon the young ones or perhaps shower my head with some saliva. Let me end this here, as I do not want to go one-on-one with the President of the Republic.

Hours later, when the Presidential Press Unit shared the story on their Facebook page, something striking suffice. The members, I do not know if it was the norms, cropped my damn picture out and share only the then Minster of Youth, Culture and Sports, the AU Youth Envoy’s Picture. When I saw this, I said to myself, the ride for a conducive and welcoming environment in South Sudan is surely rough and still long. I said that because I knew the people behind the page were young people or semi-young people at least (those below 40 years in South Sudan). What they did was not from a big man. They were not paid or instructed to crop that picture I believed. I think thy just had a feeling that I was not part of the people in the room.

With that in mind, I think we should cease from calling the sunset generation in South Sudan as the sole contributors to the mess in our country. They had their part but the biggest shareholders now are we the youth. If we hear of our men or women (Activists) arrested, they are not arrested by a 50 years old or a 70 years old Minister in the sitting government, the young men are behind this. Some are directed, while most generate all these reports to look good in front of their big men. When you want to see a minister, governor or the commissioner of your area, the people who say Bany OR Kuar is making a phone call or meeting someone are your age mates not these old men. How this can be solved will come from all of us I guess.

Interestingly, as the photos were circulating on Social media with different interpretation of the looks from the President, I was receiving phone calls from very many young men in Juba. Most of the callers were congratulating me for meeting the president. I do not know why this had to be treated a success, Why congratulate a fella? Did I just land the managerial role of Nilepet? No!

Just a handshake with the President. Our leaders have become so rare that when you meet one, the others will look at you like someone who made it in life. They have created all these barriers to make themselves look so expensive in the eyes of the public even when we call them Public Servants. How do you serve the Public in offices? My cousin who was the second caller made my day. He said “Mubruk, your problems are now all settled. All your issues are now sorted. When should I come for my share? You should make me your driver after two weeks.” Is this because most people who meet the head of State ask for some support? Is it because of the “yellow Envelope” that is dubbed HANDSHAKE?

In a country of about 11 million people, if we all meet the big man one at a time, and ask for a car, or some money, how much would the country gain in building some public institutions? Our masses should know that for every 10 Dollar that our leaders hand to us in cash, they bill the national account 100,000 US Dollar or more against your name. That mean 10-20 primary schools will be pocketed in the name of Handshake. IS this not a lost to the Nation and the generation to come?

Lastly, around 8pm, when the TV crew, the great men at SSBC aired the story. My head was off the TV screen. I think the team behind the camera were not sure of how to politely tell someone that they are not needed in a press briefing. If they had an idea, they were not going to chop off my head in the interviews. But since they had no idea, they went ahead to do the hustle. When I was asked, why my head was not appearing, I told my guys, maybe I was too tall. Probably taller than “Mr. Long Body” the Presidential guard whose face never missed in all of his interviews. One of the TV News anchor happened to be my former schoolmate. When he saw me coming out from the presidential office, I saw some changes in his face. He asked me, one question (Why are you here and why the visit?) more than 3 times in a space of 5 minutes, meaning he lost concentration and had something disturbing him. Our last group photo with the President is nowhere to be seen till this day. Maybe we will have it one day.

All in all, the take away from this interaction to me were these;

  1. The President was open and very honest in his response. He admitted a lot of things happening in the country and wanted solutions to the unrest. I do not know if it was the “AU tag” that the Envoy seem to have move with or something else.
  2. When leaders chose to meet people selectively and make themselves rare in the public eye, they lose touch with the masses/realities. It is them who miss a lot and not the people. Public servants should meet their people regularly. That is why, I am thinking of “After 5 O’clock Stories/Dialogues with the Commissioner” in Mayom County so that people do not have to struggle lining up in the Slim Commissioner’s office with aim of shaking hands. It will be after 5 pm daily so that we do not waste time for service delivery in talks.
  3. Much as we are saying the young people are the change, we should not stop there. Young people should as well change and adopt moral characters that are in line with the change they seek to see. It is not good to expect the gifts of Abel from our leaders/elders when we are offering Cain’s gifts. You are either Abel or Cain, you can’t be both. We should not be confirming Shakespeare’s observation, “I can easier teach twenty what were good to be done, then be one of the twenty to follow mine own teaching.”
  4. The journey to a beautiful South Sudan start with a well-nourished brain. If our minds are not properly fed, we will not

imagine beauty well. We might arrive at the destination we are looking for and not recognize it. As we shall be busy with taking town to the People. Let us support each other and be our “brothers’ / sisters’ keepers” always.

Simon Marot Touloung, is an active Youth Leader and Co-founder of the South Sudan Science Club (SSSC) whose main focus is environmental protection and Climate Change. He was a co-founder and Program Manager for African Youth Action Network –AYAN in Kiryandongo refugee settlement, Uganda.

Note: The views expressed in the ‘Opinion’ section are sole responsibility of individual authors and will take full responsibility, liability and blame for any libel or litigation that results from something written in or as a direct result of something written in a comment. The South Sudan Herald is not liable for any comment submitted by individuals and reserves the right to delete any opinion piece for any reason whatsoever.

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Opinion| Corruption: The Pandemic of Economies

By Marial A. Yol


June 27, 2020 (Thessherald)–Wars, famines and disasters such as earthquakes tsunamis and pandemics provide fertile ground for corruption to breed. Once a disaster strikes, a plethora of all types of malpractices will be unleashed. In South Sudan, known episodes of malpractices include Dura saga, Crisis Management Committee saga, Letters of Credit saga, and Funds Embezzlement saga. These sagas are a manifestation of a serious malady which has infested the country in the absence of robust anti-graft institutions to administer preventive measures.

In South Sudan, corruption is categorized into four sectors:

• The extractive sector: oil sector which is the nation’s largest revenue source which is used as a collateral for the foreign loans seriously lacks any transparency and accountability mechanisms.

• 2- The military: military organization maintains control over the nation’s economy directly by controlling the public budget and indirectly by close ties to businesses and contracts. South Sudan’s military spending is higher than that of any other country in the region. It is believed that there is little oversight of payroll expenses and rare reporting of payroll expenditures.

• 3- State spending: this involves a procurement system that is susceptible to abuse and waste, with lucrative contracts regularly awarded to the suppliers connected to government officials. No-bid (single sourced) contracts, notably for road building and vehicle imports, are regularly awarded to companies at inflated prices with no oversight.

• Money laundering: money dealers exploit the country’s fragile financial industry to launder money and generate revenue. Senior government officials were heavily involved in the financial sector, especially in speculative activities in the parallel currency market. Illegal transfers were rampant with no disclosures. Private FOREX bureaus have been established just to facilitate money laundering.

One important example occurred in 2008 when a corruption of grand scale struck the country as the Government paid nearly SSP 6.0 billion to purchase sorghum for preventing an expected famine in 2009. This transaction became publicly known as the “Dura Saga“. In February 2013, Government solicited the assistance of the World Bank forensic investigators which revealed that 290 firms were paid without ever having signed a contract, and another 151 firms were overpaid significantly. The scam involved the disappearance of several million dollars that had been allocated for the building and repair of grain stores and the purchase of grain, none of which was delivered.

What is Corruption?

Corruption is defined as “the use of public office for unauthorized private gain”. Wikipedia defined corruption as “a form of dishonesty or criminal activity undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire illicit benefit”.

The word “corruption” came into the subject literature in early 14th century. In adjective form, “corrupted” meant debased in character”. Senior (2006) defined corruption as an action to (a) secretly provide (b) a good or a service to a third party (c) so that the party can influence certain actions which (d) benefit the corrupt, a third party, or both (e) in which the corrupt agent has authority.

Categories of Corruption

The three categories of corruption identified are:

• Petty corruption: which occurs at a smaller scale at the implementation end of public service projects when public officials meet the public.

• Grand corruption: occurs at the highest levels of government and involves significant subversion of the political, legal and economic systems. This type of corruption is common in authoritarian or dictatorial governments and those without adequate policing of corruption. That’s why government system is divided into three branches: legislative, executive and judiciary in order to provide independent services that are less subject to grand corruption as a result of their independence from one another.

• Systemic corruption: also known as endemic corruption, results from the weaknesses of institutions, an organization or process. It is encouraged by factors such as conflicting incentives, discretionary powers, monopolistic powers; lack of transparency; low pay; and a culture of impunity.

Political Corruption

Corruption and politics are intertwined in such a way that one hardly exists without the other. Political corruption is simply defined as “the abuse of public power, office, or resources by elected government officials for personal gain, by extortion, soliciting or offering bribes”. This type of corruption occurs as office holders maintain themselves in office by buying votes or enacting laws which use taxpayers’ money. Any official that uses the power of an elected political office for personal gain or for a personal agenda is abusing the trust of that office, and hence is committing political corruption.

Types of Political Corruption

If the officials overseeing these projects divert some of that money into their personal accounts, they have committed an act of embezzlement, also known as “graft.” It can occur anytime an official chooses to use funds owned by another person or group for their own personal benefit.

• Blackmail and Extortion: this type occurs when officials use the power and influence provided to them to threaten other persons into behaving in a certain way they want.

It also occurs when elected representatives threaten to reveal information that they think might incriminate someone in order to coerce that person into cooperating with them.

Preferential Treatment:

This type occurs when officials allow their appointments to be influenced by inappropriate or illegal factors. Nepotism is one type of preferential treatment. It is the practice of giving appointments to family members, rather than basing appointments on the actual qualifications of the appointees. Another type of preferential treatment, known as patronage, occurs when officials make appointments in exchange for votes, payoffs or other benefits.

• Influence peddling: is the illegal practice of using one’s influence in government or connections with persons in authority to obtain favors or preferential treatment for others, usually in return for payment.

Corruption Measures versus South Sudan

Corruption Perception Index or CPI places South Sudan at rank 179 out of 180 nations and a score of 12 out of 100 only above Somalia in 2017. The five countries with the highest scores (and hence the most ‘clean’) are New Zealand (89), Denmark (88), Finland, Norway, and the Switzerland, 85 each. At the other extreme, the countries with the lowest scores (and highest perceived corruption) are Sudan (16), Afghanistan (15), Syria (14), South Sudan (12) and Somalia (9).

Consequences of Corruption on the economy:

Economic Growth: Corruption creates the opportunity for increased inequality, reduces the return of productive activities, and, hence, makes rent-seeking and corruption activities more attractive. This inequality does not only generate psychological frustration to the under-privileged but also reduces productivity growth, investment, and job opportunities. Tani (1998) argued that highly corrupt governments spend less on education and health, thereby limiting human capital building and the potential for economic growth. Corruption may reduce the efficiency of domestic and international aid flow through diversion of funds from intended government projects (Mauro, (1997). He stressed that corruption reduces revenue generated through taxation when parties engage in tax evasion, creating budget deficits for the government. Furthermore, corruption elevates the hidden cost of doing international business (Kehoe, 1998). It is indicated that multinational corporations suffer tarnished reputations in the world marketplace when they engage in corrupt practices (Ghosal and Moran, 2005). It is further argued that corruption undermines development efforts by weakening the institutional foundation on which economic growth stands (Klitgaard, 1988).

Specifically, corruption can cause the following effects:

• Corruption decreases foreign investment: There are many cases in which foreign investors willing to come to developing countries return to their home countries due to heavy corruption in the government bodies.

• Corruption causes delay in growth: A work which can be done in few days may be done in many months. This leads to delay in investment, starting of industries and also growth. Even if started, company growth is hindered as every work linked to officials get delayed due to need to provide bribes or other benefits.
• Corruption retards development: New industries willing to invest in particular region can change their plans if corruption is reported to be rampant in that region. If there is no proper infrastructure, companies will not wish to start up there, and this hinders the economic progress of that region.

• Corruption widens differences in trade ratios: Some countries have inefficient standard control institutions that can approve low-quality products for sale in their country. Other countries do manufacture cheap products which they can dump in big markets. However, they cannot dump these cheap products in countries with strict standard control institutions. They can do so only in countries with chances of corrupt officials in standard control. This widens differences in trade ratios among nations.

Effects of Corruption on Society

i. Corruption leads to disregard for officials: In countries with high levels of corruption, there is high level of public disregard for government officials involved corruption. The public talks negatively about them and this can contribute to the building of distrust. Even lower grade officers will be disrespectful to higher grade officers and may not obey their orders.

ii. Corruption leads to high level of pollution: Corruption in government allows the industry opt to release untreated and harmful waste into rivers and air. If there is no corruption, there can be fair probes. The industry personnel will treat the waste such that it is less toxic and harmless to environment and people in it. So this implies that corruption is also a significant contributor to pollution.

Preventive Measures

•To combat corruption, there is need to establish strong and robust legal framework, strict law enforcement and independent and effective court system. Civil society support can be sought to buttress the process with initiatives such as Transparency International’s Unmask the Corruption campaign. The following deterrent and preventive measures are recommended:

• Reform of Public Administration and Financial Management: Reforms should focus on improving financial management and strengthening the role of auditing agencies. One such reform is the disclosure of budget information, which prevents waste and misappropriation of resources. For example, Transparency International encourages transparent and participatory budgeting by training local communities to comment on the proposed budgets of their local government.

• Promotion of Transparency and Access to Information: there is need for government openness, freedom of the press, transparency and access to information. Access to information increases the responsiveness of government bodies, while simultaneously positively affecting the levels of public participation in a country.

• Empower Citizens: Strengthening citizens’ demand for anti-corruption and empowering them to hold government accountable can help to build mutual trust between citizens and government.

Close International Loopholes: Without access to the international financial system, corrupt public officials would not be able to launder and hide the proceeds of looted state assets.
Governments need to put in place mechanisms for stopping banks and cooperating offshore financial centers from absorbing illicit flows of money. The European Union 4th Anti-Money Laundering Directive, which requires EU member-states to create registers of the owners of companies established within their borders is one good example.

• Development of robust oversight and accountability mechanisms. Country’s public sector oversight institutions should be the primary entities involved in countering corruption and promoting greater transparency and accountability. Institution-building should prioritize building the capacity and safeguarding the integrity of judicial and governance oversight. Priority institutions such as courts, National Auditing Chamber, Anti-Corruption Commission, and the Public Accounts Committee in the Legislative Assembly should be empowered. Countering political influence and supporting the country’s courts with technical expertise that can support local actors in the effort to investigate and prosecute economic crimes and pursue asset tracking and recovery is critical. Any individual found to have intentionally subverted these institutions should be considered to be “undermining democratic institutions” and should be placed under sanctions.

vi. Creation of a searchable public registry of all corporate entities formed in the country. This measure can prevent the top government officials and their immediate family members from holding stakes in numerous commercial ventures which are not actually accessible to the public.
There is need to establish a searchable corporate registry that makes available certain corporate filings from each company that contain basic information about the firm’s true owners, including their name, date of birth, business address, and identification number. These records should be accessible at a very low cost.

Introduction of a Financial Management System:

This will prevent senior government officials from hijacking state institutions and looting public resources. Additionally, there is need for an oversight mechanism for revenue collection, budgets, revenue allocation, and government spending with technical and advisory support from the regional and international community. To help safeguard the integrity and bolster the capacity of crucial oversight institutions that are designed to review and check public spending, donors and international institutions in the country should work with country’s civil society to establish a financial management mechanism.

• Conduct of retrospective review of the allocation of government contracts and natural resource concessions. Most of the funds targeted by corruption appear to come from the oil, mining, foreign exchange, and banking sectors as well as defense supply contracts from the government. These sectors should be subject to a retrospective review and extensive auditing. Companies and individuals found to have abused their power to secure unfair advantage should lose government contracts and natural resource concessions and face steep penalties.

South Sudan’s National Audit Chamber should be given an authority that extends beyond the chamber’s mandate in order to benefit from partnership with impartial external actors to help further ensure that the review process itself cannot be manipulated for political ends.

Defining the roles of youth in society when it comes to nation-building

Opinion | By: Cde Simon Char

June 23, 2020 (Thessherald)–Youthfulness is the inner strength not to stagnate or resistant to change but to stay open to new possibilities, it’s the power of the spirit that refuses to succumb to complacency and strives ever forward.

We are over 50% in South Sudan population with aspirations and experiences in our own rights to take what is within our grasp to build a better South Sudan, this is the power hold as young and future leaders.

Reimagine the world with tenacity innovation and courage to disrupt every cycle that yields negative results for youth because the future needs passionate, happy and confident young leaders who are willing to challenge what’s obstacle to their ambitions in taking country to what it people expect and deserve by standing up for conviction.

We are the period in which a man can be hopeless because every end of episode is the end of the world but the power of hoping through everything is the knowledge that the soul survives its adventure, that great inspiration comes to middle ages ( Youth ) therefore we are the hope of country’s future for lasting peace, stability and sustainable development due to fact that everything is possible and everything can be possible through our ability and confident as the future of this great country is in our hearts and minds.

My fellow youth we will have our own trials and temptations through which we must pass because there are great moments of eternity which lie a head, but our love, peace and confident to build this great country South Sudan is our main task and make it beautiful and peaceful to it’s Citizens.

Let’s pray that we will be prepared for the reins of leadership and arise and shine forth to be the light unto South Sudan by keeping the spirit of love and togetherness among us.

Let’s work together in putting the suffering of our people to an end because we are elders of tomorrow of this great and promises land by mitigating both Communal and political differences aside and promote peace, love and togetherness as the only solution for our wellbeing because the wisdoms of the wise and experiences of the ages is on us, let’s strongly united and truthful humble to face challenges and be the change with out losing hope in creating opportunities, be mature enough to deal with the things against our wellbeing.

We are the only change and future of next coming generations, so let’s make our whole country proud of us as we are always temperamental predominance of courage over timidity of the appetite and the adventure over the live of peace and unity in South Sudan. Lastly we are the only hope for peaceful South Sudan

The author is a concerned citizen, and he’s reachable via his email at

Note: The views expressed in the ‘Opinion’ section are sole responsibility of individual authors and will take full responsibility, liability and blame for any libel or litigation that results from something written in or as a direct result of something written in a comment. The South Sudan Herald is not liable for any comment submitted  by individuals authors and reserve the right to delete any opinion piece for any reason whatsoever.

Should you wish to submit your opinion piece or analysis, kindly contact us at:

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